>Critic 2/2021

Critic 2 is a non-thematic production that draws on the momentum from the inaugural issue. It features contributions from both scholars and practitioners all over the world, with a dedicated section for reviews.

>Critic 2 Outline

Made up of 9 articles and one review, this 2021 issue of Critic is a rich and eclectic collection, with contributions in English, French and Spanish. Topics covered include neuronal machine translation (NMT), ergonomics in the language industry, literary and legal translation, drama translation, as well as epistemology, and functionalist approaches to translation studies.

Critic Vol. 2/2021
Non-Thematic Issue

ISSN 2707-8531 
ISBN 979-84-53471-81-2

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De la traduction manuscrite à la traduction neuronale. Évolution ou révolution ?

Jean-François Allain
Conseil de l’Europe, Strasbourg

Abstract
Drawing on nearly fifty years’ experience in different areas of translation, the author outlines how translation practice has evolved with the gradual introduction of new translation tools — word processing, the Internet, translation memories, machine translation — leading to the emergence of “electronically assisted translation”. He then considers whether so-called neural translation is yet another stage in this evolution or whether it marks a revolution, not only in the way of working, but also in the direction that the training of translators will have to take in the future.

Keywords: e-assisted translation; Neural translation; Training of translators

Ergonomics of tools usage for video game localisation: a user survey

María Isabel Rivas Ginel
Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté
& Universidad de Valladolid

Abstract
This paper presents some of the results of two online surveys addressed to professionals working in localisation and video game testing, respectively. The aim is to analyse the ergonomics of CAT tools’
usage for game localisation by contrasting the data with current business practices and common linguistic bugs. The first survey, which received 620 complete answers from freelance and in-house professional localisers, was conceived to gather information about business practises as well as the tools they use in terms of project management software, terminology databases, specialised corpora, CAT tools, etc. The second survey received 550 complete answers and was addressed to linguistic testers to collect data about the problems they usually encounter when they review the localised versions, as they are the last line of defence before the release of a video game and have access to a WYSIWYG environment. The crossed-analysis of both questionnaires shows that the most common bug found during the linguistic testing phase is the one usually referred to as “Text overflows, overlapping or truncation”, a problem that arises from an unnatural split between text and image that is specific to video game localisation.

Keywords: localisation, video game, ergonomics, survey, linguistic testing, CAT tools

Traducción de las obras poéticas:
una visión de la labor del/de la traductor/a

Marie-Évelyne Le Poder
Universidad de Granada

Abstract
This article focuses on the work carried out by translators when faced with the translation of poetic works. It is structured around three parts. The first one presents, by way of introduction, some preliminary considerations; the second corresponds to some reflections raised by certain poets / translators regarding the translation of poetry in a broad sense and, specifically, the eternal dilemma of the duality between form and background; the third and last part presents some lines of conclusion.

Keywords: translation, poetry works, translation activity, translators, poets

La traduction littéraire de l’idiomatique :
clivage ciblistes/sourciers

Amal Arrame
Université Abdelmalek Essaadi, Maroc

Abstract
Literary text translation had been always a real challenge, and it will remain so. Actually, the same novel can have several translations of which everyone is claiming victory. Choosing one of the two sides is not that easy when we deal with literary translation in general, and especially with idioms. Target-based translation defenders or source-based translation ones, they have their point of view and arguments that support it, but it is not enough for a good translation of idioms; a phenomenon that needs the translator’s genius and his know-how.

Keywords: translation, literature, expression, idioms, strategy

Traduction juridique, traduction littéraire, similitudes et divergences

Bérengère Denizeau
ESIT/Université Sorbonne Nouvelle

Abstract
This article proposes an analogy between two types of translation: literary translation and legal translation. By comparing these two practices, we aim to obtain an answer to the following question: what are the common and divergent points that can be contrastively observed between “literary” and legal translation? Above all, with the help of the state of the art, it will be necessary to define these two objects precisely. On a more practical level, we will also look at the results of a survey conducted among translation and publishing professionals.

Keywords: translation, legal, literary, pragmatic, skills

Les perspectives textuelles dans l’analyse de texte en traduction

Edmond Kembou
IÜF, Université de Hildesheim, Allemagne

Abstract
This paper discusses text analysis for translation purposes. It explores the triardic text analysis method based on the three text perspectives (atomistic, holistic, and hol-atomistic) developed by Mudersbach and Gerzymisch-Arborgast. These perspectives are peculiar in that their analysis is completely based on the text and its components. They can therefore be rightly qualified as text-based analysis methodologies. The methodologies are well known in German translation studies but aslo often criticised for their complexity. The three text analysis perspectives remain, however, little known in French-speaking translation studies. It is hoped that this article will shed light on this method and perhaps open the debate on its relevance for translation.

Keywords : text analysis, translation, atomism, holism, hol-atomism

Traductibilité et différence épistémique.
Penser la traduction avec Gramsci

Micol Bez
University of Johannesburg, Afrique du Sud

Angelo Vannini
Université Paris-Est Créteil, France

Abstract
This article presents Antonio Gramsci’s thought on translation, and in particular his concept of the translatability of scientific and philosophical languages. At first, the authors present and comment on Gramsci’s reflections, trying to unveil the hidden presuppositions of his approach. Then, starting from the problem of epistemic difference, considered as one of the major challenges for contemporary translation theory, the authors try to deterritorialise the Gramscian concept of translatability to rethink the epistemology of translation, redirecting it towards greater epistemic justice.

Keywords: epistemic difference, epistemic justice, Gramsci, philosophy of translation, translation theory

Traduire les émotions anciennes :
enjeux anthropologiques de la diffusion des textes

Caroline Richard
Sorbonne-Université

Abstract
This article considers the problems existing in the process of translating ancient texts from the perspective of a better knowledge of these civilizations from both a literary and anthropological point of view. It considers a technical response to the problem of the non-specialist translator, proposing a new method to facilitate the sharing of data on texts, resulting from multiple research studies. It also thinks about a technological solution using the Digital Humanities, aiming at a better diffusion of ancient translated texts, and thus at a better accessibility to the knowledge of these civilizations by the public. The objective of this article is to promote a dynamic and interactive approach to translation, as well as to highlight the stakes of translation in relation to the understanding of ancient ways of life and thought.

Keywords: translation, latin, emotions, digital humanities, method

Traduire l’oralité au théâtre du langage

Alina Kornienko
Université Paris VIII-Vincennes-Saint-Denis

Abstract
A wide range of theories of translation exist nowadays. Due to poetic, stylistical and structural key elements a particular attention has to be paid to theories and practices of theater plays. One of the most distinctive, interdisciplinary and at the same time cross functional poetry and drama translation approaches is the one created by French linguist, translation theorist Henri Meschonnic who based his translation methodology on his own rhythm theory. Through the lens of this theory as far as drama special characteristics being a literary text and particular speech act type at the same time, we are going to study practical and methodological problems of French contemporary drama translation using the plays of one of the most significant figures of French contemporary literature and stage representing «word drama» – Jean-Luc Lagarce.

Keywords: theory of translation, drama translation, theory of rhythm, poetics of translation, word drama

Christiane Nord (2020). La Traduction : une activité ciblée. Introduction aux approches fonctionnalistes. Liège : Presses universitaires de Liège, 200 p.

Carlos Djomo Tiokou
ESIT/Université Sorbonne Nouvelle

Abstract
This is a review of the second edition of Christiane Nord’s La Traduction : une activité ciblée. Introduction aux approches fonctionnalistes.

Keywords: functionalist theories, Skopos theory, translation studies, translator training

>Critic - ISSN 2707-8531 (Print)

About

Critic is an innovative scholarly journal which covers a wide range of interesting topics, from literary translation to audiovisual and multimedia translation through language technologies, translator training, conference and community interpreting, and intercultural communication. The journal is interested in anything related to languages, translation, culture, and multilingual communication. Published annually, it includes articles and book reviews spanning through the whole translation studies spectrum.

Journal Team

EDITORS
Stéphanie Engola (University of Yaoundé I)
Oumarou Mal Mazou (CIRTI/University of Liège)

EDITORIAL TEAM
Suzanne Ayonghe (University of Buea)
Carlos Djomo (ESIT/Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Muhammed Mousavinasab (ESIT/Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Madiha Kassawat (ESIT/Sorbonne Nouvelle)

Advisory Board

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As a new journal, we are not yet famous. But we are working towards that goal. Being new and run by young scholars does not mean we settle to play in minor leagues. We are targetting the World’s top indexation rankings and, gradually thriving to feature there. 
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